Why is Safety Necessary in Chemical Industry?

Safety in chemical industry is the avoidance of injuries and illnesses, especially in workplaces and transportation.

    Risk assessment is the study of consequences, likely or unlikely, and their potential costs in compensation for errors and harm, in litigation that can run for many years, and damage to the reputations of individuals and organizations.

    Safety is oriented toward operations while risk assessment focuses on projects .


Commissioning is the use of a disciplined, systematic and professional methodology, to convert newly constructed process plant into a fully integrated and operational unit  , to achieve start-up and production targets as designed , in the most safe, efficient, cost effective and timely as per schedule.

Fundamentally commissioning is a series of checks and counter checks that confirm newly constructed chemical plant is fit for purpose and suitable for ongoing operation, these checks being made at all stages of a projects life, not just after construction is complete.


Commissioning is often viewed in different terms. commissioning is best described when broken into three phases  :

                  1.  Pre- Commissioning,

                  2. Commissioning  &

                  3. Start-up.


Activities to be undertaken :

               – to set core-team ,

              – gather information,

              – select other team members ,

              – develop the schedule  &

              – create documentation .

Pre-commissioning, activities carried out, starting during the construction phase of a project that prepare and enable the unit to move to the main commissioning phase  smoothly .

The range of pre-commissioning activities include :

                       –  Installation of  Equipments,

                       –  Instrument, electrical and

                          mechanical  equipment check,  

                       –  Cleaning pipes and Equipments,

                       –  Preliminary Acceptance Testing,

                       –  Punch listing  .


    This phase traditionally perceived as “IMPLEMENTATION”, examines the facets that address    :

                 –  the installation with PAT defects

                     eliminated / addressed ,

                 –  checking out and

                 – start-up of the new equipment .

–  The various systems and items of equipment  are first put into initial operation.

    – Utility systems, Instrument Air, Cooling Water and General Purpose Water are made live and the core process systems are first made operational typically with safe chemicals, air or water.

   – The unit is leak tested, started up, shut down, restart , distillation columns and scrubbing columns put into use, all to gain the confidence that when process chemicals are introduced the plant will operate as designed and intended.


The final stage of the commissioning process and the one most neglected, ensuring that all paperwork systems and trials are complete,

  –  The plant or equipment has met its acceptance criteria enabling the plant to be handed to the ongoing operations group ,

  – The plant is brought into actual operation.


Chemical plant commissioning has developed significantly and at some pace over the last 25 years, as the constraints of primarily cost and schedule, bore heavily on project management teams. A methodology had to be developed that no longer had the luxury of distinct and separate construction, commissioning and handover to the operations group phases.




  • Have you ever been part of a project where not everyone has the same view of where the project is heading?
  • This lack of clarity can breed confusion: People start pulling in different directions, building up unrealistic expectations, and harboring unnecessary worries and fears.
  • While it’s normal as part of a project to put the detailed plans, controls and reporting mechanisms into place, how do you get everyone on the same page to start with?
  • This is accomplished by creating a Project Initiation Document (PID) – the top-level project planning document. In it, you bring together all of the information needed to get your project started, and communicate that key information to the project’s stakeholders. With a well-put-together Project Initiation Document, you can let everyone understand where the project’s heading from the outset.


  • Defines your project and its scope.
  • Justifies your project.
  • Secures funding for the project, if necessary.
  • Defines the roles and responsibilities of project participants.
  • Gives people the information they need to be productive and effective right from the start.
  • By creating a PID, you’ll answer the questions: What? Why? Who? How? When?

A logical, structured approach to correct commissioning  documents , will  transform any plant system, on any duty, into a production unit operating safety, effectively and fully delivering to its design intent within all time and cost constraints.

  • The commissioning of a process plant should be considered and implemented in three distinct phases.

                                                     –     Prepare ,

                                                          –  Implement &

                                                           –  Closeout .

  • For optimum success in a commissioning exercise, the members of a project team responsible for the commissioning phase should be involved at an early stage of the project to ensure that all considerations related to the start-up of the plant are considered.


This phase covers activities undertaken to set up the commissioning :

                         –  gather information,

                         –  select the commissioning team,

                         – develop   the schedule &

                         – create documentation.

    These all are typically home office tasks.


    This phase, which traditionally has been perceived as commissioning, involves:  

     – Examining the facets that address the  installation,

    –  Checking out,

    –  Pre-commissioning,

     – Wet and dry commissioning, and

     – Start-up of the new equipment at the job site.


  • This is the final stage of the commissioning process and the one most often neglected.
  •  It entails ensuring that all paperwork systems and trials are complete and updated to “as commissioned” status and that the plant and equipment have met the performance and acceptance criteria, allowing the plant to be handed to the ongoing operations group.


  • Appoint the  Commissioning Manager.
  • Define the commissioning scope.
  • Systemize the plant into commissioning systems by using the project piping and instrument diagrams (P&IDs) and other relevant documents, including layout drawings, mechanical flow diagrams, and equipment lists.
  • Integrate commissioning systems into the engineering documents,  instrument index, P&IDs, equipment lists, and procurement plans.
  • 3-D model, project schedule, safety integrity level (SIL), layers of protection analysis (LOPA), and control philosophy.
  • Compile the commissioning estimate and/or budget.
  • Agree on the interface/handover procedure with project, client, and construction groups.
  • Obtain pertinent and relevant engineering documents and establish the electronic commissioning team library.
  • Attend various hazard studies.
  • Compile the initial commissioning schedule .
  • Set up the site commissioning base and compile the commissioning consumables list.
  • Determine the initial fill chemicals and simulants and procure them.
  • Create the commissioning manual.
  • Compile the standard operating procedures (SOP).
  • Compile the training packages.
  • Agree on safe systems of work with all interested parties.
  • Compile the commissioning procedures.
  • Compile the decontamination procedures.


  • Start the commissioning log.
  • Check construction progress and quality.
  • Test and clean pipe work and equipment.
  • Generate the punch list as required for each commissioning system.
  • Commence training of plant and maintenance personnel.
  • Manage handover construction to commissioning and/or operations.
  • Attend to  pre-start-up safety checks.
  • Complete all leak testing.
  • Pre-commission the systems.
  • Manage post-start-up modifications.
  • Manage the introduction of safe process chemicals.
  •  Move the team to a shift management role if required.
  • Issue first draft of the standard operating procedures.
  • Start up the plant.
  • Validate plant performance with the quality team.


  • Update  all commissioning documents and standard operating procedures to “as commissioned” status ,
  • Manage post-start-up modifications ,
  • Update to training documents to “as commissioned” status.
  • Run and manage the plant to predetermined design production rates and initial output for the required duration.


Process Flow Chart

  • This is required for carrying out Inspection in  a Chemical Plant commissioning.
  • It helps us to take round in a chronological order and understand the process systematically .
  • It includes names &weights of raw materials to be charged , their sequence of charging , time cycle for processes, addition of any other reactants etc.


  • Starts  from unloading of material ,
  • Storage Facility ,
  • Process Building ,
  • Operation Units ,
  • Handling of Products,
  • Packing of Products ,
  • Product Go-down,
  • Loading of Products,
  • Handling of by-products & effluents etc…


  • Standard conditions of Process and Storage ,
  • Plant Integrity ,
  • Process Deviationss ,
  • Emergency Procedure ,
  • Fire Precautions  etc.

Standard Condition of  Process & Storage

  • Initial Information ,
  • Process Description ,
  • Operating Instructions ..


  • Safe working limits ,
  • Design , Construction , Inspection ,Test & Certification ,
  • Protective Devices ,
  • Maintenance ,
  • Inspection & Testing ,
  • Inspection Authority  ,
  • Evaluation of Plant Integrity .


  • A   –  Vessels ,
  • B   –   Pipelines ,
  • C    –  Pumps & ancillary equipments ,
  • D    –  Modification to Plant & Equipment ,
  • E    –  Management Control .


1 – Variables ,                    

2 – Process Chemistry ,

3 – Pressure ,

4 – Temperature , 

5 – Level ,                  

6 – Flow rate ,                

7 – Impact ,                         

8 – Services , 

9- Start Up & Shutdown

10-Operator’s Error(Sensory Failure, Failure in Logic, Failure to Act Proeprly.)


  • Loss of Containment of hazardous substances ,
  • Go through the PLANT LAYOUT , PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAM , records of failure history & past accidents and walk round the installation,
  • Safety arrangements in relation to off-site impact with local sorroundings ,
  • A prior meeting & discussion with experts in Engg., Medical, Managements ,
  • Competency of the Occupier & Contractors should be verified ,
  • Process documents to scrutinize for it’s completeness and quality ,
  • Process description to be available with SOPs,
  • Operating Instruction to be displayed , with the range of Maximum and minimum limits of Pressure , temperature , Flow etc.,
  • Protective devices such as Pressure relief valves , Rupture discs , Explosion vents , High and low level alarms , instruments  – should be checked for it’s suitability ,
  • Safe system of work like manual venting systems , loading & unloading procedures , safe temperature storage to be known to people working around ,
  • Preventive and Condition based maintenance schemes should be established .
  • Periodicity of Inspection and Testing to be certified .
  • Pressure vessels to be inspected as per  statutory  requirements .
  • Pipelines , Pumps and ancillary equipments to be periodically inspected and maintained .
  • Preventive and Condition based maintenance schemes should be established .
  • Periodicity of Inspection and Testing to be certified .
  • Pressure vessels to be inspected as per  statutory  requirements .
  • Pipelines , Pumps and ancillary equipments to be periodically inspected and maintained .
  • Color code  should be followed .
  •     Water –Sea green , Steam – Aluminium,
  •     Acid – Dark Violet , Gas – Canary yellow,
  •     Alkali – Smoke Grey , Combustible liquid – light brown .
  • Where failure can be hazardous , standby equipment should be provided ( ex- generator , pneumatic pumps etc ..)
  • Modifications to original should be certified by competent authority .
What is Pressure Vessel?

A pressure vessel is a closed container designed to hold gases or liquids at a pressure substantially different from the ambient pressure. The pressure differential is dangerous, and fatal accidents have occurred in the history of pressure vessel development and operation.

Leak Testing of Pressure Vessel

  • After the installation or repair of any drain or pipeline system it should be tested for leaks. Newly laid and existing drainage systems can be tested by a variety of means from air testing to water testing on both positive and negative pressure tests on any size pipe.
  • Pull through stoppers can also be used to isolate sections of pipe work to determine which joint is leaking.

hydrostatic tests are directed under the imperatives of either the business’ or the client’s determinations, or might be legally necessary. The vessel is loaded up with an almost incompressible fluid – typically water or oil – and analyzed for breaks or perpetual changes fit as a fiddle.

Red or fluorescent colors might be added to the water to make releases simpler to see.

The test pressure is in every case significantly higher than the working strain to give a factor of wellbeing. This factor of security is commonly 166.66%, 143% or 150% of the structured working weight, contingent upon the guidelines that apply.


  • Non-destructive testing (NDT) includes a number of analysis techniques used to evaluate the properties of a material, part, product, weld, or system without causing damage to the article being evaluated. NDT techniques are frequently used in a variety of engineering applications, including forensic, mechanical, electrical, civil, systems, aerospace and aeronautical, as well as medical applications.
  • NDT techniques do not damage or permanently alter the article being inspected, making them efficient and cost-effective analysis methods in product evaluation, troubleshooting and research. NDT techniques are particularly useful in ensuring the quality of finished products when employed during critical stages of the manufacturing or fabrication process.
  • Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) techniques help assure safety and reliability through detection of any flaws or defects in product or industrial components. It is used in oil and gas construction / production facilities, petrochemical plants, power stations, refineries and pipelines without disrupting operations or delaying processes. Demand for this service has grown, driven by increasing regulation and standardization, extending asset lifespan and the need to protect reputation from product failure.
  • Non-Destructive Testing encompasses a wide group of analysis techniques used in the oil, gas and petrochemical industry to evaluate the properties of material.  The term “Non-Destructive Testing (NDT)” is commonly used to describe the technology because NDT does not permanently alter the article being inspected.  It is a highly valuable technique that can save both time and money in product evaluation. 
  • Ultrasonic Testing(UT)
  • Digital radiography (DT)
  • Magnetic particle testing(MP)
  • Liquid Penetrant Testing(PT)
  • Positive Material Identification(PMI)
  • Acoustic Emission Testing
  • Visual Inspection


  • Any force acting on a body – resulting stress – causes deformation and with it acoustic emission – an elastic wave  that travels outward from the source , moving through the body  until it arrives at a remote sensor .
  • In response , the sensor produces an electrical signal , which is passed to electronic equipment  for further processing .


Vibration is a mechanical phenomenon whereby oscillations occur about an equilibrium point. The oscillations may be periodic such as the motion of a pendulum or random such as the movement of a tire on a gravel road.Vibration is occasionally “desirable”. For example, the motion of a tuning fork, or harmonica, or mobile phones or the cone of a loudspeaker is desirable vibration, necessary for the correct functioning of the various devices.
More often, vibration is undesirable, wasting energy and creating unwanted sound – noise. For example, the vibrational motions of engines, electric motors, or any mechanical device in operation are typically unwanted. Such vibrations can be caused by imbalances in the rotating parts, uneven friction, the meshing of gear teeth, etc. Careful designs usually minimize unwanted vibrations.


Corrosion is the deterioration of materials by chemical interaction with their environment. The term corrosion is sometimes also applied to the degradation of plastics, concrete and wood, but generally refers to metals.



             – Coating the Metal  (zinc, tin ,Al-oxide,  

                        resin , plastic ,paints, enamels etc)

             – Alloying the Metal (SSS) .


         – Removal of Oxygen ,

         –  Corrosion inhibitors ( chemical additives)


  • Total system solution which can operate seamlessly from plant/facility control and production management to production plan.
  • A chemical plant is required to adjust /control requirements (temperature, pressure, flow amount…..) to produce products connecting each facility with piping to realize regulated process (reaction, distillation, filtration….).
  • This solution provides large scale plant monitoring control system led by DCS (distributed control system) and utility equipment monitoring control system of power source and heat source equipment according to its scale size.

State-of-the-art automated production facilities are characterized on the one hand by an increasing complexity and networking and on the other by a growing dynamics as a result of accidental disturbances. The verification of correct operation, fault finding, early detection and prevention of incidents and especially the diagnosis and monitoring of the corresponding physical process are of vital importance for the economic operation of complex industrial production processes.

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